Montessori, Reggio Emilia, Waldorf, Multiple Intelligences and HighScope. How many of these names are you familiar with? Rachel Lim and Michelle Ang round up the types of early childhood approaches out there.
Multiple Intelligence Theory
This model was proposed by Harvard University Professor, Howard Gardner, in his book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences in 1983. He identified eight types of intelligences that every individual has the capacity to possess. This allowed educators to identify various strengths and weaknesses in children and also challenged the idea of measuring intelligence using IQ.
Involves visual perception of the environment. It is the ability to create and manipulate mental images, and the orientation of the body in space.
Involves reading, writing, speaking and conversing in one’s own or foreign languages.
Involves number skills, recognising patterns and relationships, timeliness and order, and the ability to solve different kinds of problems through logic.
Involves physical coordination and dexterity, using fine and gross motor skills, and expressing oneself or learning through physical activities.
Involves understanding and expressing oneself through music and rhythmic movements or dance, or composing, playing or conducting music.
Involves understanding how to communicate with and understand other people and how to work collaboratively.
Involves understanding one’s inner world of emotions and thoughts, and growing in the ability to control them and work with them consciously.
Involves understanding the world of nature, noticing their characteristics and categorising them.
Preschools that incorporate Multiple Intelligences:
- Preschool for Multiple Intelligences, www.pmi.com.sg
- ChildFirst, www.childfirst.com.sg
- Posso Preschool, www.possopreschool.com
Read our Enrichment and Preschool Guide to learn about other enrichment programmes for your toddler or preschooler.
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